Women in risk groups

  • Those with painless bleeding (at any stage in pregnancy)
  • Those with low-lying placenta or placenta praevia
  • In-vitro fertilization pregnancies
  • Multiple pregnancies
  • Those with bi-lobed or succenturiate-lobed placenta (fig.1)

Fig 1: Courtesy of the www.theFetus.net © Francois Manson

  • Those with velamentous insertion of the cord (fig.2)


  • History of previous uterine surgery including D&C or C-Section